Metric eBook ฎฉ
is the prefix for 1000 times as much.
of the KILOGRAM as a CONSTANT MATHEMATICAL
For more than a century the world's fundamental unit of mass has been based on a single, cylindrical piece of metal. And authorized copies of it stored in secured chambers around the world including the United States, over the years in infinitesimal ways, are shedding or accumulating atoms here and there, thus throwing off the accuracy of the objects meant to be the world standard for measurements of mass.
The 4 cm tall ingot of platinum and iridium, known as the International Prototype Kilogram, offered the world a standardized way of measuring what earlier scientists defined as 1 kilogram being the mass of 1 liter of distilled water (at sea level).
But to ensure greater accuracy there is a method of nano-measurement using "Watt Balance" housed at the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) near Washington, DC, which is a bid to recast the kilogram as a mathematical equation, unerring, immutable and ultimately easy for experts to reproduce.
And it is expected to yield groundbreaking calculations.
The ultimate purpose of the "Watt Balance" is to help scientists generate a reliable calculation of Planck's Constant. A universal value that quantifies the relationship between energy, light and an object's mass, which in turn will produce a new,
more accurate basis for defining the kilogram worldwide.
The race to reinvent the unit of measurement was considered important, partly because the kilogram is the only holdout in the metric system still based on a physical object rather than a formula derived from a universal constant.
The meter, once pegged to the length of a bar of platinum, was redefined in 1983 by a formula using the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum over 1/299,792,458 of a second. Which means that the length of a meter will never change.
The kilogram however is redefined as "JUST A BUNDLE OF ENERGY"
While the ampere, kelvin and mole will be tied to the elementary electrical charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively, the kilogram will now be defined by the Planck Constant. A physical constant that is the quantum of action, which relates the energy carried by a photon to its frequency.
A photon's energy is equal to the Planck constant times its frequency. Which is to say, Planck's constant, symbolized h, relates the energy in one quantum (photon) of electromagnetic radiation to the frequency of that radiation. In the International System of units (SI), the constant is equal to approximately 6.626176 x 10-34 joule-seconds.
The equation reveals that mass can be understood and even quantified in terms of energy.
Planck's equation shows that energy, in turn, can be calculated in terms of the frequency ν of some entity such as a photon (a particle of light), or alternatively, with some mathematical substitutions, a mass- times a multiple of h. The multiple must be a positive integer- such as 1, 2 or 3. The integer aspect is what makes the relationship "quantised" matter releases energy in discrete chunks, known as quanta,
which can be imagined as individual packets or bundles of energy.
Thus, the ultimate purpose of the "Watt Balance" is to help scientists generate a reliable calculation of Planck's Constant. A universal value that quantifies the relationship between energy, light and an object's mass,
which in turn will produce a new, more accurate basis for defining the kilogram worldwide.
Just as the meter, once defined as the length of a bar of platinum, was redefined in 1983 by a formula using the speed of light
as the distance light travels in a vacuum over 1/299,792,458 of a second. Which means that the length of a meter, like the kilogram now will never change.
In July of 2012, scientists at the world's biggest atom smasher in Switzerland claimed the discovery of a new subatomic particle.
They called it "consistent" with the long-sought Higgs Boson, popularly known as the "God particle" that helps explain what gives all matter in the universe size and shape. It also adds to the "Big Bang" theory in creation of the universe.
The Higgs Boson, which until now has been a theoretical particle, is seen as the key to understanding why matter has mass, which combines with gravity to give an object weight. Very similar to the idea of gravity as Isaac Newton discovered it to be where gravity was there all the time before Newton explained it.